There are three common types of allergy testing: skin prick test, blood test, and food challenges. An allergist can perform these tests, and they can also go into further depth depending on the results.

 

Skin testing on arm is a common way for detecting an allergy, however, it is not as effective as other tests.
  • For skin prick tests, a tiny board with protruding needles is used. The allergens are placed either on the board or directly on the skin. The board is then placed on the skin, in order to puncture the skin and for the allergens to enter the body. If a hive appears, the person will be considered positive for the allergy. This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin prick tests.
  • Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the same disadvantage and only detects IgE allergens and does not work for every possible allergen. RAST, RadioAllergoSorbent Test, is used to detect IgE antibodies present to a certain allergen. The score taken from the RAST test is compared to predictive values, taken from a specific type of RAST test. If the score is higher than the predictive values, there is a great chance the allergy is present in the person. One advantage of this test is that it can test many allergens at one time.



  • Food challenges test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of a pill, so the person can ingest the allergen directly. The person is watched for signs and symptoms. The problem with food challenges is that they must be performed in the hospital under careful watch, due to the possibility of anaphylaxis.

The best method for diagnosing food allergy is to be assessed by an allergist. The allergist will review the patient’s history and the symptoms or reactions that have been noted after food ingestion. If the allergist feels the symptoms or reactions are consistent with food allergy, he/she will perform allergy tests.




Examples of allergy testing include:

  • Skin prick testing is easy to do and results are available in minutes. Different allergists may use different devices for skin prick testing. Some use a “bifurcated needle”, which looks like a fork with 2 prongs. Others use a “multi-test”, which may look like a small board with several pins sticking out of it. In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed on the skin to prick, or break through, the top layer of skin. This puts a small amount of the allergen under the skin. A hive will form at any spot where the person is allergic. This test generally yields a positive or negative result. It is good for quickly learning if a person is allergic to a particular food or not, because it detects allergic antibodies known as IgE. Skin tests cannot predict if a reaction would occur or what kind of reaction might occur if a person ingests that particular allergen. They can however confirm an allergy in light of a patient’s history of reactions to a particular food. Non-IgE mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method.
  • Blood tests are another useful diagnostic tool for evaluating IgE-mediated food allergies. For example, the RAST (RadioAllergoSorbent Test) detects the presence of IgE antibodies to a particular allergen. A CAP-RAST test is a specific type of RAST test with greater specificity: it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen. Researchers have been able to determine “predictive values” for certain foods. These predictive values can be compared to the RAST blood test results. If a persons RAST score is higher than the predictive value for that food, then there is over a 95% chance the person will have an allergic reaction (limited to rash and anaphylaxis reactions) if they ingest that food. Currently, predictive values are available for the following foods: milk, egg, peanut, fish, soy, and wheat. Blood tests allow for hundreds of allergens to be screened from a single sample, and cover food allergies as well as inhalants. However, non-IgE mediated allergies cannot be detected by this method. Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test (ALCAT) and the Food Allergy Profile are considered unproven methods, the use of which is not advised
  • Food challenges, especially double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC), are the gold standard for diagnosis of food allergies, including most non-IgE mediated reactions. Blind food challenges involve packaging the suspected allergen into a capsule, giving it to the patient, and observing the patient for signs or symptoms of an allergic reaction. Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, food challenges are usually conducted in a hospital environment in the presence of a doctor.
  • Additional diagnostic tools for evaluation of eosinophilic or non-IgE mediated reactions include endoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy.

Differential diagnosis

Important differential diagnoses are:

  • Lactose intolerance; this generally develops later in life but can present in young patients in severe cases. This is due to an enzyme deficiency (lactase) and not allergy. It occurs in many non-Western people.
  • Celiac disease; this is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins such as gliadin (present in wheat, rye and barley). It is a non-IgE mediated food allergy by definition.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (hereditary angioedema); this rare disease generally causes attacks of angioedema, but can present solely with abdominal pain and occasional diarrhea.

Food allergy Prevention